Write on Chlamydia and Bacterial vaginitis Include pathophysiology, rational drug selection, monitoring, drug-drug interactions, and side effects.
Pathophysiology of Chlamydia and Bacterial vaginitis Solved
To offer sound healthcare services, professionals need to understand the mechanisms of disease. Once the healthcare practitioner whether a nurse or physician, understands the particular disease the patient is suffering from, they are able to explain to the patient the disease and suggest appropriate diagnostic processes as well as the treatment course to undertake accordingly. Consequently, this essay purposes to explore the pathophysiology of chlamydia and bacterial vaginitis (BV).
To begin with, chlamydia infection is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis through unprotected sex with an infected partner. The chlamydia bacteria attacks and infects the host cells then depend on them to get their nourishment for survival. In doing so they cause clinical manifestations in women like abdominal pains, low-grade fever, and large quantities of yellowish foul-smelling discharge in women. Azithromycin drug is selected due to the pharmacokinetic properties that make it suitable for the treatment of STIs. Other alternative antibiotics recommended by CDC include Doxycycline, erythromycin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin. According to McMullan & Mostaghim (2015) patients using Azithromycin, the professional should monitor the international normalized ratio (INR) carefully in case they have heart diseases being managed with warfarin since it is a blood thinner. At the same time, patients with conditions like arthritis and on colchicine concentrations should use alternative treatment since Azithromycin may increase colchicine concentrations leading to toxicity. Many patients tolerate Azithromycin but between 1-5% experience side effects like dizziness, headache, and gastrointestinal upsets. (Pathophysiology of Chlamydia and Bacterial vaginitis Solved)
On bacterial vaginitis, it is important to observe that this refers to an inflammation of the vagina due to vaginosis (pathogenic infection of the vagina) or other factors like the reduced female hormone estrogen, irritants, or allergies. In the context of this paper bacterial vaginosis emanates from the complex alterations in the vaginal flora leading to a decrease in the usual lactobacilli and an increase in harmful bacteria like Gardnerella vaginallis and Mycoplasma hominis (Bertini, et al, 2017). The resulting imbalance irritates the vagina tissues thereby causing vaginitis. The BV infection may manifest itself as general itching, burning, and redness accompanied by a thin, grey, or milky discharge with an unpleasant fishy smell. The drug selected for the treatment of BV in this context is Tinidazole since evidence-based practice indicates that it can combat metronidazole–resistant pathogens (Abbasppor, Rabee & Najjar, 2014). Just like metronidazole, concurrent use of tinidazole is contraindicated with alcohol as it may trigger a disulfram-like reaction. (Pathophysiology of Chlamydia and Bacterial vaginitis)
Although it is not known if the co-administration of lithium and tinidazole requires close monitoring since in the case of metronidazole it is known to increase the risk of lithium toxicity. Tinidazole being a nitroimidazole derivative may increase the impact of Warfarin and other coumarin anticoagulants ending with a prolongation of prothrombin time. For patients on this type of anticoagulant therapy, there is a need to adjust the dosage of this oral anticoagulant when tinidazole is co-administered and up to eight days after its discontinuation. The side effects experienced by a patient on tinidazole include headache, dizziness, and anorexia though compared to those with metronidazole they are more favorable. (Pathophysiology of Chlamydia and Bacterial vaginitis Solved)
Conclusion (Pathophysiology of Chlamydia and Bacterial vaginitis Solved)
In conclusion, this essay has established the pathophysiology of chlamydia and bacteria vaginitis. It has also examined the rationale of the drug selected to treat each of the two diseases as well as monitoring the patient, drug-drug interaction before highlighting some of the adverse effects the patient may experience while on prescription drugs treating these diseases.
Abbaspoor, Z., Rabee, Z., & Najjar, S. (2014). Efficacy and safety of oral tinidazole and metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized control trial. Pharmacol. Res, 4, 78-83.
Bertini, M., Serdaroglu, S., & Kutlubay, Z. (2017). Bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases: relationship and management. Fundamentals of Sexually Transmitted Infections, 75.
McMullan, B. J., & Mostaghim, M. (2015). Prescribing azithromycin. Australian prescriber, 38(3), 87.
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